Reconstructing the Science and Technology Policy System
Modern science and technology policies do not only target research and development in a narrow sense but also require close coordination with social transformation in various fields. In such a context, major decisions in science and technology policy require coordination with various stakeholders, including diverse ministries and agencies with field presence. Responses to COVID-19, digitalization, and climate change are accelerating these changes. In addition, geopolitical factors, such as US-China confrontation, are becoming more important in science and technology policy, and the need to enhance resilience in international supply chains is being recognized. Japan’s science and technology innovation ecosystem need to be placed in this international context. Furthermore, compared to other OECD countries, Japan has less government involvement in R&D investment, and the utilization of private R&D investment and collaboration with the private sector are becoming more important. In this context, it is also important to take into accounts the inherent challenges of R&D in the private sector and provide appropriate direction. In the light of these changes, this study examines how the science and technology policy system, which consists of the division of roles among various actors involved in science and technology policy, the way they interact with each other, and the policy instruments used, needs to be reconstructed, based on the analysis of case studies, including comparisons among fields and countries.